HIMACHAL PRADESH ADMINISTRATIVE EXAMINATION

CS MENTORS Academy is one of the best academy for HAS exam coaching in Chandigarh. Academy is producing top Ranks in Himachal Administrative examination and allied services examination continuously. The expert Team of CS MENTORS are mentoring the aspirants for HAS exam for the best results. In previous years, the Academy has a record of top ranks in all over the Himachal in these services.

1st rank holder in HAS SH. Manmohan Singh, 2nd rank holder in HAS, Sh. Babu Ram Sharma, 3rd rank holders Sh. Surender Thakur (2015) & Sh. Somil Gautam (2017) 4th Rank Holder Sh. Surender Mohan (2014), Naib Tehsildar Topper Ms. Radhika, HP Allied 1st Rank Holder of 2018 Sh. Anurag Sharma and many more are our achievers.

The Himachal Pradesh Public Service  Commission has been established under Article 315 of the Constitution of India. The Commission has its own building and the office located  at Nigam Vihar (Chotta Shimla) on Cart Road.

HPAS or Himachal Pradesh administrative services exam commonly known as HAS exam is one of the toughest exams of the state of Himachal Pradesh. HAS exam is conducted by Himachal Pradesh Public Service Commission every year in the month of April or May. The selected candidates appointed as SDM, DSP, Tehsildar, and BDO after the final selection.

No. of stages in HAS Examination

  • Preliminary- (200 Marks GS) + (200 Marks CSAT)
  • Mains- 3 GS Paper (200X3=600) + 1 optional (2 papersX 100=200)+ Essay(100)+ Hindi(100)+English(100)
  • Viva Voice- 150 Marks

Preliminary Examination (Objective type):

Preliminary examination consist of 02 papers based on objective type (multiple choices) questions.

  • Paper-I: General Studies (Code No.01)
    Max. marks: 200 marks
    No. of Questions: 100 objective type (Multiple choices) questions.
  • Paper-II: Aptitude Test (Code No.02)
    Max. marks: 200 marks
    No. of Questions: 100 objective type (Multiple choices) questions.
  • Aptitude Test (Paper-II) of the Preliminary Examination will be a qualifying paper with minimum qualifying marks fixed at 33% and, therefore, marks obtained in this paper shall not be counted for determining the merit of the candidates to be drawn exclusively on the basis of marks obtained in General Studies (Paper-I) of the Preliminary Examination for their admission to the Main Examination.

HAS MAINS Detailed Syllabus

COMPULSORY PAPERS

PAPER–I: ENGLISH  (100 MARKS)

Objectives:

This paper is designed to test candidate’s knowledge/aptitude in the following:

  1. Comprehension of English Language
  2. Correct grammatical expression
  3. Clarity and precision in expression Areas of Testing:

Candidates will be tested in the following areas:

  1. English Grammar                          –  (20 Marks)
  2. Usage and vocabulary                 –  (20 Marks)
  3. English Composition Letter /Application/ Report / Note writing   –  (20 Marks)
  4. Comprehension of unseen passages – (20 Marks)
  5. Precis Writing                          –  (20 Marks) Evaluation / Marking:

Credit will be given for the following:-

  1. Writing of précis, comprehension, composition and usage according to requirements of format.
  2. Coherence and sequence in expression.
  3. Correctness of grammatical structures.
  4. Originality of thought and expression.

PAPER-II: HINDI IN DEVNAGRI SCRIPT (100 MARKS)

(i)       Translation of an English passage into Hindi.

(ii)      Translation of Hindi passage into English.

(iii)     Explanation of Hindi passage in Prose and Poetry in the same language.

(iv)     Composition (Idioms, corrections etc.)

PAPER-III: ESSAY (100 MARKS)

Objective:

This paper is designed to test candidate’s (i) knowledge  /  awareness  of  a  variety  of subjects and (ii) their ability to compose a sustained piece of writing in the form of an essay.

Contents:

A fair choice of topics covering (i) current affairs (ii) socio- political issues (iii) socio- economic issues (iv) aspects of culture and history and (v) reflective topics will  be  given  to  test the candidates’ understanding of these issues and their flair for expressing  themselves  in  the English or in Hindi language. The candidates are required to attempt 2 Essays, choosing one each from Section A and B in about 900 words each.

Areas of Testing:

This paper would test the following:

  1. Ability to compose a well-argued piece of writing
  2. Ability to express coherently and sequentially
  3. Awareness of the subject chosen Evaluation / Marking:

Credit will be given for the following:

  1. Observing established rules and format for essay writing
  2. Grammatical correctness of expression
  3. Originality of thought and expression

PAPER-IV: GENERAL STUDIES-I (200 MARKS)

UNIT–I

SUB UNIT–1

  • Historical perspective of Indian Cultural heritage:
  • Literature and Art forms from ancient times to 1947 (Major structural and rock-cut temple architecture, sculptural art and major schools of paintings).
  • Modern Indian history from mid- 18th century to 1980.
  • Freedom Struggle: its various  stages  and  the  role  of  eminent  personalities  from  different parts of India.

SUB UNIT-2

  • Industrial Revolution and the emergence of Capitalism.
  • Fascist Ideology and its global implications.
  • World Wars and boundary settlements after the First and the Second World Wars.
  • Concept of  Decolonization,  Nationalism      and Socialism, Globalization and concept of Modernity.

SUB UNIT-3

  • Emergence and growth of early medieval states: Kangra,  Kullu  and Chamba. Hill States and their relations with the Mughals and the Sikhs.
  • Gorkha invasion- its nature and consequences, Treaty of Segauli.
  • Hill States          under the     Colonial       power:         Political       and Administrative History. Grants, Sanads and territorial aggression.
  • Social and Economic conditions under colonial period with special reference to social practices of Beth, Begar and Reet.
  • Establishment of British Cantonments.
  • National Movement with special reference to Praja Mandal movements  in Himachal Pradesh, 1848-1948.
  • Five Year Plans and vision for the developed Hill State.
  • Survey of artistic and cultural Heritage (Temples, Budhist Monasteries and Paintings).

Note:—  All  the  topics  /  subjects  covered  under   SUB   UNIT-3   are  relevant to the State of Himachal Pradesh.

UNIT-II

SUB UNIT-1

  • Introduction to Disasters: Concepts, definitions, disaster classifications including  natural and man-made disasters.
  • Social and Environmental impacts of disasters.
  • Disaster profile of the country.
  • Approaches to Disaster Risk Reductions.
  • Disaster management models. Roles and responsibilities of stakeholders including community, Concept of first responders.
  • Interrelationship of disaster and development.
  • Disaster management in India including Disaster Management ACT 2005, National  and state policies, Plans and institutional mechanism in the country.

SUB UNIT-2

  • Geographical Introduction to India, India as a unit of Geographical Study.
  • Aspects of the Physical Geography of India – Structure and Relief, Climate, Soils and Vegetation, Geomorphic set up (Mountain Ranges and Rivers and other Water Bodies).
  • Human Aspects – Population distribution, Urban Population, Internal Migration.
  • Language and Literacy, Villages and Towns in India.
  • Settlements, Industry and Transport.

SUB UNIT-3

  • Geography of Himachal Pradesh: Relief, Drainage, Vegetation cover and types.
  • Climate and climatic zones in Himachal Pradesh.
  • Geographical Regions of Himachal Pradesh (Shiwalik, Doons and Low Valleys, Outer Valleys of Sub Himalaya, Mid Hill Tracts of High Himalaya, High hills and Valleys and Inner Zones).
  • Human Aspects: Quantitative, Qualitative and Temporal characteristics of Population, Urbanisation pattern.
  • Policies: Forest, Industrial and Tourism Policies, Growth of Industrial areas and types of Industries in Himachal, Employment generation and potential, Scope of future Industrialization, Hazard Vulnerability and Risk Profile of Himachal Pradesh.

Note:— All the  topics  /  subjects  covered  under  SUB  UNIT-3  are  relevant to the State  of Himachal Pradesh.

UNIT-III

SUB UNIT-1

  • Salient features of Indian Society, Unity in Diversity.
  • Social Institutions: Family, Marriage, Kinship, Religion and Social stratification in India.
  • Women empowerment and social justice: Policies for women Empowerment in India, Laws for protection of women, women security and safety initiatives in India.
  • Child Rights and Right to Education.
  • Rights of differently-able persons and quality of life for them.

SUB UNIT-2

  • Core Values in public service / governance.
  • Philosophical basis of public service / governance and Integrity, Professionalism, Accountability.
  • Objectivity and Transparency, information sharing and right to information, codes of conduct, work culture, challenges of corruption and political pressures.
  • Gandhian Thought: Truth and Non-violence, Satyagraha, Ends and Means, Religion and Politics.

SUB UNIT-3

  • Society and Culture in Himachal Pradesh: Culture, customs, fairs and festivals,  and  religious beliefs and practices, recreation and amusement.
  • Tribes of Himachal Pradesh: their historical, social, cultural, economic and legal aspects.
  • Family, marriage, kinship, and caste system in Himachal Pradesh.

Note:— All the  topics  /  subjects  covered  under  SUB  UNIT-3  are  relevant to the State  of Himachal Pradesh.

PAPER-V: GENERAL STUDIES-II (200 MARKS)

UNIT–I

SUB UNIT–1

  • Constitution of India: Historical underpinning, evolution, salient features.
  • Significant provisions including Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy, Fundamental Duties.
  • Amending process   and  important  Constitutional         Amendments and theory of basic structure.

SUB UNIT-2

  • Parliament and State legislatures, Structure, Organization and functioning of the Union and State Executive and the Judiciary.
  • Functions and responsibilities of Union and  States,  issues  and  challenges  pertaining  to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up-to local level and challenges therein.
  • Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.
  • Appointments to various constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various constitutional bodies in India.

SUB UNIT-3

  • Reorganization and politics of statehood.
  • Development of political parties, major Political parties and their support base and performance in the Assembly and Parliamentary elections in Himachal Pradesh.
  • Politics of sub-regionalism and pressure groups in the State.
  • Structure, organization and functioning of Statutory, Regulatory  and  various  Quasi- Judicial bodies in Himachal Pradesh.

Note:—  All  the  topics / subjects  covered  under   SUB  UNIT-3  are  relevant to the State  of Himachal Pradesh.

UNIT-II

SUB UNIT-1

  • Institutional framework, Policies and Interventions for development in various sectors in India.
  • Governance, Good   governance,    Citizen   Charters,   effective   public   service   delivery, transparency, accountability and ethics in governance in India.
  • District Administration: Changing role of Deputy Commissioner.
  • Local self-government in urban and rural areas in India.

SUB-UNIT-2

  • Role of Non-Government Organizations (NGOs),
  • Self Help Groups (SHGs) and Civil Society in Governance in India.
  • Bodies constituted, Policies, Programmes and Schemes for welfare of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes,
  • Women, Minorities, Backward classes, Differently-abled persons, and children in India.
  • Issues relating   to   quality   of   life:   livelihood,   poverty,   hunger, disease and social inclusiveness.
  • Governance in Himachal Pradesh:

SUB UNIT-3

  • The Himachal Pradesh Public Service Guarantee Act 2011;
  • Right to Information Act, 2005 and rules made thereunder by the Himachal Pradesh Government.
  • Administrative reforms for effective public service delivery in Himachal Pradesh.
  • Implementation of 73rd& 74th Constitutional amendments in Himachal Pradesh.
  • Issues and Challenges. Programmes and policies for the welfare of differently-abled persons, women and children in Himachal Pradesh.

Note:— All the  topics  /  subjects  covered  under  SUB  UNIT-3  are  relevant to the State  of Himachal Pradesh.

UNIT-III

SUB UNIT-I

  • Bilateral, Regional and Global groupings and agreements involving India and affecting India’s interests.
  • India’s look east policy.
  • India’s relations with United States of America (U.S.A.), Russia, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, Nepal, Maldives and Middle East Countries.

SUB UNIT-2

  • Effects of the policies of developed and developing countries on India’s interest, Indian Diaspora.
  • Important international Institutions, agencies and fora, their structure and mandate.

SUB UNIT-3

  • Cyber crime and drug menace – mechanism to detect and control it in Himachal Pradesh.
  • Enactments made by Himachal Pradesh Government  to  protect  and promote the interests of agrarian society.
  • Various policies framed by the Government of Himachal Pradesh for the socioeconomic development of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes of the State.
  • Tribal welfare administration, Tribal sub  plan  and  Single  line  administration  in  Himachal Pradesh.

Note:— All the  topics  /  subjects  covered  under  SUB  UNIT-3  are  relevant to the State  of Himachal Pradesh.

PAPER-VI: GENERAL STUDIES-III (200 MARKS)

UNIT–I

SUB UNIT–1

  • Characteristics of Indian Economy:
  • Demographic Profile, Demographic Dividend and Population Policy.
  • Sectoral Composition with respect to contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Employment.
  • Poverty and Inequality, Unemployment, Inflation in India.
  • Industrial Growth in India.
  • Regulatory framework for money and banking: Reserve Bank of India (RBI), Commercial banks and Regional Rural Banks.
  • Monetary policy, Foreign exchange, Balance of Payment Scenario.
  • Foreign Trade: Policy, Composition and Direction, Impact of Liberalization / Privatization and Globalization.
  • Economic Planning in India.

SUB UNIT-2

  • Five Year Plans: strategies and outcomes, Public / Private / Joint Sectors.
  • Fiscal Policy, Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2003, Debt and Investment in India: Current Status, Growth and  Development  experience  including  Natural Resource Management.
  • Sustainable development and Inclusive growth.
  • Measurement of economic development: Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI),  Millennium Development Goals, Human Development  Index  (HDI)  /  Gender Development Index (GDI) / Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM).
  • Latest / Current Development Schemes / Initiatives / Institutional Changes (e.g. Swach Bharat Mission, Make in India, Digital India, Skill India, Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS), National Institution for Transforming India (NITI) Ayog etc.).
  • International Financial and Economic Organizations: International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Trade Organization (WTO), International Bank  for  Reconstruction  and Development (IBRD), International Development Association (IDA), United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), Organization for  Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS).
  • Economy of Himachal Pradesh:

SUB UNIT-3

  • Demographic profile          and    Human        resource,     Sectoral distribution of Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP).
  • Diversification in       Agriculture  and    allied activities,     Land tenure and size of land holdings.
  • Industrialization in the state.
  • Skilled / Unskilled labour.
  • Revenue generation with special reference to hydro potential, tourism, flora and fauna.
  • Cottage and Small Scale Industries.
  • Tax base, Pros and Cons of Special Category status.
  • Appraisal of education, Health, Physical and Financial Infrastructure Development.

Note:—All  the  topics  /  subjects  covered  under  SUB  UNIT-3  are  relevant to the State  of Himachal Pradesh.

UNIT-II

SUB UNIT-1

  • Applications of space technology in natural resources, development and communications.
  • Important missions and programmes of Department of Space and Indian Space Research Organization.
  • Historical evolution of Indian Space programme. Lunar, interplanetary and Earth Observation Missions.
  • Remote Sensing and Communication satellites. Applications of Remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) for natural resources monitoring and applications benefiting common man.

SUB UNIT-2

  • Developments in energy sectors such as Hydro  power,  non  conventional  sources  of energy and nuclear energy including policies, programmes and research base in the country.
  • Concepts of non conventional, renewable, clean and environment friendly energy sources. Role of energy in sustainable development.

SUB UNIT-3

  • Modern and emerging technologies and initiatives in the State of Himachal Pradesh Including biotechnology policy, research, vision, scope and applications for developing horticulture, medicinal and aromatic plants resources of the State.
  • IT policy of Himachal Pradesh and its role in governance,  concept  of  Himachal  State Wide Area Network (HIMSWAN), State plans of e-governance, concept of  LokMitra Kendra and Aryabhatta Geo-Informatics Space Application Centre (AGISAC).
  • State Biodiversity strategy and Action Plan. Endangered and threatened species  of  Himachal Pradesh. Factors responsible for Bio diversity decline in Himachal Pradesh.
  • Relevance and role of Intellectual Property Rights, Geographical Indications  and  Traditional wisdom and knowledge in sustainable development of the State.

Note:— All the  topics  /  subjects  covered  under  SUB  UNIT-3  are  relevant to the State  of Himachal Pradesh.

UNIT-III

SUB UNIT-1

  • Issues, concerns, policies, programmes, conventions, treaties and missions aimed at environment protection, and dealing with the problem of climate change.
  • State of environment reports. Environment protection and pollution control Act and rules.
  • Environment Impact Assessment.
  • National Action plans on Climate Change.
  • Himalayan ecology, biosphere reserve, Science and economics of climate change.
  • Social and ethical issues in use of Biotechnology.

SUB UNIT-2

  • Latest developments in science and technology for harnessing agriculture, horticulture, medicinal and herbal resources in the country.
  • National mission for sustainable agriculture, mission for integrated development of horticulture.
  • Concept of organic farming, seed certification, rain water harvesting, techniques of  irrigation and soil conservations and soil health cards.

SUB UNIT-3

  • Tourism policy, potential and initiative in Himachal Pradesh.
  • Types of tourism: religious, adventure, heritage, Important tourist destinations in Himachal Pradesh.
  • Social, Economic and Cultural implications of Tourism.
  • Concept of  Eco-Tourism  and  green  tourism  and  their  role  in  sustainable development  of the State.
  • Environmental concerns      of       tourism        industry,      both   positive        and          negative effects including climate change with reference to Himachal Pradesh.

Note:— All  the  topics / subjects  covered  under   SUB  UNIT-3  are relevant to the State   of Himachal Pradesh.

INTERVIEW / PERSONALITY TEST (150 MARKS)

The candidate will be interviewed by the Commission  who  will  have  before  them  a  record of his/her career. He / She will be asked questions on matters  of  general  interest.  The  object of the interview is to assess the personal suitability of the candidate for  the  services or service for which he / she has applied to the Commission.

The test is intended to judge the mental calibre of candidate. In broad terms,  this  is  really  an assessment of not only his / her intellectual qualities but  also  social  traits  and  his  /  her  interest in current affairs including  the  knowledge  of  customs,  manners  and  dialects  of Himachal Pradesh. Some of the qualities to be judged are mental alertness, critical powers of assimilation, care and logical exposition, balance of judgements, variety and depth  of  interest, ability for social cohesion and leadership, intellectual and moral integrity”.

“This preliminary examination will consist of two objective type papers (multiple choice questions) and carry a maximum of 400 marks in the subjects of General Studies and Aptitude Test. This examination is meant to serve as a screening test only; the marks  obtained in the Preliminary Examination by the candidates who are declared qualified for admission to  the Main Examination will not  be counted for  determining their final order    of merit. The number of candidates  to  be  admitted to the Main Examination will be about 20 times the total approximate number of vacancies to be filled in the year through this examination. Only those candidates who have been declared by the Commission to have qualified the Preliminary Examination will be eligible for admission to the  Main Examination corresponding to the said Preliminary Examination provided  they  are otherwise eligible for admission to the Main Examination:

Provided that Aptitude Test (Paper-II) of  the  Preliminary  Examination  will  be  a qualifying paper with minimum qualifying marks fixed at 33% and, therefore, marks obtained in this paper shall not be  counted for determining the merit of the candidates to     be drawn exclusively on the basis of marks obtained in General Studies (Paper-I) of the Preliminary Examination for their admission to the Main Examination.

Note:—        There will be negative marking for incorrect answers (as detailed below) for all questions:

(i)       There will be four alternatives for the answers to every question.  For each question  for which a wrong answer has been given by the candidate, one third (0.33) of the marks assigned to that question will be deducted as penalty.

(ii)      If a candidate gives more than one answer, it will be treated as a wrong  answer      even if one of the given answers happen to be  correct and there will be same penalty  as above for that question.

(iii)     If a question is left blank i.e. no answer is given by the candidate, there will be no penalty for that question”.

RULES RELATING TO THE SUBJECTS AND STANDARD OF THE COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION OF CANDIDATES FOR THE POST OF HIMACHAL PRADESH ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICE

  1. The main examination shall include compulsory subjects and one optional subject. Before this main examination a preliminary objective type examination based on multiple choice questions is to be conducted, the papers / syllabus and pattern of which will be as prescribed in Appendix-V.
  2. The candidate shall specify in his/her application form the optional subject he/she desires to take. He / She may intimate any change of his / her intention to the Secretary of the Commission not later than the last date prescribed for the payment of the examination fee. A candidate shall answer the Optional Paper in English or in Hindi as per his/her option.
  3. No candidate shall be considered to have qualified the written examination unless he / she obtains atleast 40% marks in compulsory papers of Hindi and English and 45% marks in the aggregate (excluding compulsory papers of Hindi & English).
  4. The total number of candidates to be called for  interview  / personality test on the  basis of written examination, shall  not  exceed three (3) times the number of the vacancies notified for recruitment through that examination:
  5. Provided that in case there is a tie between or amongst the candidates on account of having obtained equal minimum qualifying marks on the basis of written examination, all such candidates obtaining equal minimum marks shall be called for interview / personality test.
  6. The marks obtained by the candidates in the main examination (written part as well as interview/personality test) shall determine their final ranking. Candidates will be allotted various services/posts keeping in view their ranks in the examination and  the  preference  expressed  by them for the various services and posts.

The compulsory and optional subjects and maximum marks fixed for  each  subject shall be as below:—

COMPULSORY PAPERS

Paper No.    Subject                 Maximum Marks

I                   English                           100

II                  Hindi                               100

III                 Essay                              100

IV                General Studies – I           200

V                 General Studies – II                   200

VI                General Studies – III        200

OPTIONAL SUBJECT (ONE)

Paper No.    Subject                 Maximum Marks

Paper VII      Paper-I                            100

Paper VIII     Paper-II                           100

INTERVIEW / PERSONALITY TEST 150 Marks

Note:—        The marks obtained in the Compulsory Papers of English and Hindi will not be counted for overall ranking.

The Optional Subjects for the main examination shall be as under:—

  1. Indian History
  2. Agriculture
  3. Political Science and International Relation
  4. Mechanical Engineering
  5. Mathematics
  6. Electrical Engineering
  7. Statistics
  8. Civil Engineering
  9. Economics
  10. Hindi
  11. Commerce and Accountancy
  12. Sanskrit
  13. Chemistry
  14. Urdu
  15. Botany
  16. English Literature
  17. Zoology
  18. Psychology
  19. Philosophy
  20. Geology
  21. Law
  22. Physics
  23. Sociology
  24. Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science
  25. Public Administration
  26. Anthropology
  27. Management
  28. Forestry
  29. Geography
  30. Horticulture
  31. Medical Science

The standards and contents of papers in general (excluding compulsory papers of English and Hindi) shall be similar to those of the Degree level, i.e. B.A. or  B.Sc.  etc.  examinations of a recognized University. The standards and contents of compulsory papers of English and Hindi shall be of 10+2 level.

  1. All Papers shall be of three hours duration.
  2. Knowledge of customs, manners and dialects  of  Himachal  Pradesh  and  suitability for appointment in peculiar conditions prevailing in Himachal Pradesh shall be considered as “desirable qualifications”.
  3. The marks obtained in the Compulsory Papers of English and Hindi will not  be counted for overall ranking though it would be necessary to obtain 40% marks in each of these papers to qualify.
  4. Marks and ranking will be decided on the basis of marks obtained in all other compulsory and optional papers (excluding marks of English and Hindi Papers of Compulsory Papers).
  5. Credit will be given for  good  English  /  Hindi  including  orderly,  effective  and  exact expression combined with the economy of words, in all subjects of the examination.
  6. The names of candidates who are called for interview/personality test shall  be  arranged in order of merit on the basis of the aggregate marks obtained in the examination.

Note.— In the event of a tie, order of merit  shall  be  determined  in  accordance  with highest marks secured in the interview / personality test and if the marks in the interview / personality test are also equal, then the  order  of  merit  shall  be  decided in accordance with the highest marks obtained by such candidates in the aggregate of the compulsory subjects (excluding  English  and  Hindi  papers)  and  if the marks in the aggregate of the compulsory subjects are also equal, then the order of merit shall be decided in accordance with the highest marks obtained by such candidates in the essay paper and in case there is still a tie then the elder candidate shall be placed higher in the merit.

 

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